Please wait a minute...
Submit  |   Chinese  | 
Advanced Search
   Home  |  Online Now  |  Current Issue  |  Focus  |  Archive  |  For Authors  |  Journal Information   Open Access  
Submit  |   Chinese  | 
Engineering    2019, Vol. 5 Issue (3) : 535 -547
Research Engines and Fuels—Review |
A High-Efficiency Two-Stroke Engine Concept: The Boosted Uniflow Scavenged Direct-Injection Gasoline (BUSDIG) Engine with Air Hybrid Operation
Xinyan Wang(), Hua Zhao
Center for Advanced Powertrain and Fuels, Brunel University London, Uxbridge UB8 3PH, UK
Abstract  Abstract

A novel two-stroke boosted uniflow scavenged direct-injection gasoline (BUSDIG) engine has been proposed and designed in order to achieve aggressive engine downsizing and down-speeding for higher engine performance and efficiency. In this paper, the design and development of the BUSDIG engine are outlined discussed and the key findings are summarized to highlight the progress of the development of the proposed two-stroke BUSDIG engine. In order to maximize the scavenging performance and produce sufficient in-cylinder flow motions for the fuel/air mixing process in the two-stroke BUSDIG engine, the engine bore/stroke ratio, intake scavenge port angles, and intake plenum design were optimized by three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The effects of the opening profiles of the scavenge ports and exhaust valves on controlling the scavenging process were also investigated. In order to achieve optimal in-cylinder fuel stratification, the mixture-formation processes by different injection strategies were studied by using CFD simulations with a calibrated Reitz–Diwakar breakup model. Based on the optimal design of the BUSDIG engine, one-dimensional (1D) engine simulations were performed in Ricardo WAVE. The results showed that a maximum brake thermal efficiency of 47.2% can be achieved for the two-stroke BUSDIG engine with lean combustion and water injection. A peak brake toque of 379 N·m and a peak brake power density of 112 kW·L−1 were achieved at 1600 and 4000 r·min−1, respectively, in the BUSDIG engine with the stoichiometric condition.

Keywords Two-stroke engine      Uniflow scavenging      Engine design      Engine simulation      Scavenging performance      Thermal efficiency     
Corresponding Authors: Xinyan Wang   
Issue Date: 11 July 2019
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
Articles by authors
Xinyan Wang
Hua Zhao
Cite this article:   
Xinyan Wang,Hua Zhao. A High-Efficiency Two-Stroke Engine Concept: The Boosted Uniflow Scavenged Direct-Injection Gasoline (BUSDIG) Engine with Air Hybrid Operation[J]. Engineering, 2019, 5(3): 535 -547 .
URL:     OR
[1]   N. Fraser, H. Blaxill, G. Lumsden, M. Bassett. Challenges for increased efficiency through gasoline engine downsizing. SAE Int J Engines. 2009; 2(1): 991-1008.
[2]   S. Dingle, A. Cairns, H. Zhao, J. Williams, O. Williams, R. Ali. Lubricant induced pre-ignition in an optical SI engine. SAE Technical Paper. 2014; 2014-01-1222
[3]   J. Benajes, R. Novella, D. De Lima, P. Tribotte. Investigation on multiple injection strategies for gasoline PPC operation in a newly designed 2-stroke HSDI compression ignition engine. SAE Int J Engines. 2015; 8(2): 758-774.
[4]   M. Dalla Nora, T. Lanzanova, Y. Zhang, H. Zhao. Engine downsizing through two-stroke operation in a four-valve GDI engine. SAE Technical Paper. 2016; 2016-01-0674
[5]   E. Mattarelli, C.A. Rinaldini. Two-stroke gasoline engines for small-medium passenger cars. SAE Technical Paper. 2015; 2015-01-1284
[6]   Y. Zhang, M.D. Nora, H. Zhao. Comparison of performance, efficiency and emissions between gasoline and E85 in a two-stroke poppet valve engine with lean boost CAI operation. SAE Technical Paper. 2015; 2015-01-0827
[7]   K. Nishida, H. Sakuyama, T. Kimijima. Improvement of fuel economy using a new concept of two-stroke gasoline engine applying stratified-charge auto-ignition. SAE Technical Paper. 2009; 2009-28-0009
[8]   J. Johnson, K.R. Den Braven. Comparison of homogeneous, stratified and high-squish stratified combustion in a direct-injected two-stroke engine. SAE Technical Paper. 2008; 2008-32-0030
[9]   X. Wang, H. Zhao, H. Xie. Effect of dilution strategies and direct injection ratios on stratified flame ignition (SFI) hybrid combustion in a PFI/DI gasoline engine. Appl Energy. 2016; 165: 801-814.
[10]   X. Wang, H. Zhao, H. Xie. Effect of piston shapes and fuel injection strategies on stoichiometric stratified flame ignition (SFI) hybrid combustion in a PFI/DI gasoline engine by numerical simulations. Energy Convers Manage. 2015; 98: 387-400.
[11]   X. Wang, J. Ma, H. Zhao. Analysis of the effect of bore/stroke ratio and scavenge port angles on the scavenging process in a two-stroke boosted uniflow scavenged direct injection gasoline engine. Proc Inst Mech Eng, D J Automob Eng. 2018; 232(13): 1799-1814.
[12]   X. Wang, J. Ma, H. Zhao. Evaluations of scavenge port designs for a boosted uniflow scavenged direct injection gasoline (BUSDIG) engine by 3D CFD Simulations. SAE Technical Paper. 2016; 2016-01-1049
[13]   X. Wang, J. Ma, H. Zhao. Analysis of scavenge port designs and exhaust valve profiles on the in-cylinder flow and scavenging performance in a two-stroke boosted uniflow scavenged direct injection gasoline engine. Int J Engine Res. 2018; 19(5): 509-527.
[14]   J. Ma, H. Zhao. The modeling and design of a boosted uniflow scavenged direct injection gasoline (BUSDIG) engine. SAE Technical Paper. 2015; 2015-01-1970
[15]   Wang X, Ma J, Zhao H. Analysis of the impact of exhaust valve profile on the scavenging and combustion process in a two-stroke boosted uniflow scavenged gasoline (BUSDIG) engine. In: Proceedings of the IMechE Internal Combustion Engines Conference 2017 Dec 6–7; Birmingham, UK; 2017.
[16]   X. Wang, J. Ma, H. Zhao. Analysis of the effect of intake plenum design on the scavenging process in a two-stroke boosted uniflow scavenged direct injection gasoline (BUSDIG) engine. SAE Technical Paper. 2017; 2017-01-1031
[17]   X. Wang, H. Zhao. Numerical simulation of the gasoline spray with an outward-opening piezoelectric injector: a comparative study of different breakup models. SAE Technical Paper. 2018; 2018-01-0272
[18]   X. Wang, J. Ma, H. Zhao. Analysis of mixture formation process in a two-stroke boosted uniflow scavenged direct injection gasoline engine. Int J Engine Res. 2018; 19(9): 927-940.
[19]   E. Sigurdsson, K.M. Ingvorsen, M.V. Jensen, S. Mayer, S. Matlok, J.H. Walther. Numerical analysis of the scavenge flow and convective heat transfer in large two-stroke marine diesel engines. Appl Energy. 2014; 123: 37-46.
[20]   Andersen FH, Mayer S. CFD analysis of the scavenging process in marine twostroke diesel engines. In: Proceedings of the ASME 2014 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference; 2014: Oct 19–22; Columbus, IN, USA; 2014.
[21]   E. Mattarelli, C.A. Rinaldini, P. Baldini. Modeling and Experimental Investigation of a 2-stroke GDI engine for range extender applications. SAE Technical Paper. 2014; 2014-01-1672
[22]   H. Hori. Scavenging flow optimization of two-stroke diesel engine by use of CFD. SAE Technical Paper. 2000; 2000-01-0903
[23]   O. Laget, C. Ternel, J. Thiriot, S. Charmasson, P. Tribotté, F. Vidal. Preliminary design of a two-stroke uniflow diesel engine for passenger car. SAE Int J Engines. 2013; 6(1): 596-613.
[24]   C. Lee, H. Zhao, T. Ma. A simple and efficient mild air hybrid engine concept and its performance analysis. Proc Inst Mech Eng, D J Automob Eng. 2013; 227(1): 120-136.
[25]   M. Borghi, E. Mattarelli, J. Muscoloni, C.A. Rinaldini, T. Savioli, B. Zardin. Design and experimental development of a compact and efficient range extender engine. Appl Energy. 2017; 202: 507-526.
[26]   J. Turner, D.W. Blundell, R.J. Pearson, R. Patel, D.B. Larkman, P. Burke, et al.. Project omnivore: a variable compression ratio atac 2-stroke engine for ultra-wide-range HCCI operation on a variety of fuels. SAE Int J Engines. 2010; 3(1): 938-955.
[27]   D.W. Blundell, J. Turner, R. Pearson, R. Patel, J. Young. The omnivore wide-range auto-ignition engine: results to date using 98RON unleaded gasoline and E85 fuels. SAE Technical Paper. 2010; 2010-01-0846
[28]   CD-adapco. Methodology, STAR-CD version 4.14. Melville: CD-adapco; 2010.
[29]   Z. Han, R.D. Reitz. Turbulence modeling of internal combustion engines using RNG κ-ε Models. Combust Sci Technol. 1995; 106(4–6): 267-295.
[30]   W.P. Jones. Prediction methods for turbulent flames. In: editor. Prediction methods for turbulent flow. Washington: Hemisphere; 1980. p. 1-45.
[31]   C. Angelberger, T. Poinsot, B. Delhay. Improving near-wall combustion and wall heat transfer modeling in SI engine computations. SAE Technical Paper. 1997; 972881.
[32]   A. Lefebvre. Atomization and sprays.
[33]   R.D. Reitz, R. Diwakar. Effect of drop breakup on fuel sprays. SAE Technical Paper. 1986; 860469
[34]   C. Bai, A.D. Gosman. Development of methodology for spray impingement simulation. SAE Technical Paper. 1995; 950283.
[35]   R.I. Issa. Solution of the implicit discretised fluid flow equations by operator-splitting. J Comput Phys. 1986; 62(1): 40-65.
[36]   A.M. Douaud, P. Eyzat. Four-octane-number method for predicting the anti-knock behavior of fuels and engines. SAE Technical Paper. 1978; 780080
[37]   S.K. Chen, P.F. Flynn. Development of a single cylinder compression ignition research engine. SAE Technical Paper. 1965; 650733
[38]   J. Ma. Numerical and experimental study of a boosted uniflow 2-stroke engine [dissertation].
[39]   A.M. Williams, A.T. Baker, C.P. Garner, R. Vijayakumar. Turbo-discharging turbocharged internal combustion engines. Proc Inst Mech Eng, D J Automob Eng. 2013; 227(1): 52-65.
[40]   Regner G, Herold RE, Wahl MH, Dion E,Redon F, Johnson D. The achates power opposed-piston two-stroke engine: performance and emissions results in a medium-duty application. SAE technical paper 2011:2011-01-2221.
[41]   Y. Zhang, H. Zhao. Measurement of short-circuiting and its effect on the controlled autoignition or homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion in a two-stroke poppet valve engine. Proc Inst Mech Eng, D J Automob Eng. 2012; 226(8): 1110-1118.
[42]   J. Hult, S. Matlok, S. Mayer. Particle image velocimetry measurements of swirl and scavenging in a large marine two-stroke diesel engine. SAE Technical Paper. 2014; 2014-01-1173
[43]   K.M. Ingvorsen, K.E. Meyer, J.H. Walther, S. Mayer. Turbulent swirling flow in a dynamic model of a uniflow-scavenged two-stroke engine. Exp Fluids. 2014; 55(6): 1748.
[44]   Z. Han, L. Fan, R.D. Reitz. Multidimensional modeling of spray atomization and air-fuel mixing in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine. SAE Technical Paper. 1997; 970884.
[45]   H. Ruhland, T. Lorenz, J. Dunstheimer, A. Breuer, M. Khosravi. A study on charge motion requirements for a class-leading GTDI engine. SAE Technical Paper. 2017; 2017-24-0065
[46]   P.C. Miles, Ö. Andersson. A review of design considerations for light-duty diesel combustion systems. Int J Engine Res. 2016; 17(1): 6-15.
[47]   I. Altin, I. Sezer, A. Bilgin. Effects of the stroke/bore ratio on the performance parameters of a dual-spark-ignition (DSI) engine. Energy Fuels. 2009; 23(4): 1825-1831.
[48]   C. Lee, S. Goel, A. Babajimopoulos. The effects of stroke-to-bore ratio on HCCI combustion. SAE Technical Paper. 2010; 2010-01-0842
[49]   X. Yang, A. Okajima, Y. Takamoto, T. Obokata. Numerical study of scavenging flow in poppet-valved two-stroke engines. SAE Technical Paper. 1999; 1999-01-1250
[50]   D. Thornhill, R. Douglas, R. Kenny, B. Fitzsimons. An experimental investigation into the effect of bore/stroke ratio on a simple two-stroke cycle engine. SAE Technical Paper. 1999; 1999-01-3342
[51]   R.J. Kee, G.P. Blair, R. Douglas. Comparison of performance characteristics of loop and cross scavenged two-stroke engines. SAE Technical Paper. 1990; 901666.
[52]   Y. Zhu, C. Savonen, N.L. Johnson, A.A. Amsden. Three-dimensional computations of the scavenging process in an opposed-piston engine. SAE Technical Paper. 1994; 941899.
[53]   X. Wang, H. Xie, H. Zhao. Computational study of the influence of in-cylinder flow on spark ignition–controlled auto-ignition hybrid combustion in a gasoline engine. Int J Engine Res. 2015; 16(6): 795-809.
[54]   Ingvorsen KM, Meyer KE, Walther JH, Mayer S. Phase-locked stereoscopic PIV measurements of the turbulent swirling flow in a dynamic model of a uniflowscavenged two-stroke engine cylinder. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium On Particle Image Velocimetry; 2013 Jul 1–3; Delft, The Netherlands; 2013.
[55]   S. Haider, T. Schnipper, A. Obeidat, K.E. Meyer, V.L. Okulov, S. Mayer, et al.. PIV study of the effect of piston position on the in-cylinder swirling flow during the scavenging process in large two-stroke marine diesel engines. J Mar Sci Technol. 2013; 18(1): 133-143.
[56]   P. Tamamidis. Assanis DN. Optimization of inlet port design in a uniflow-scavenged engine using a 3-D turbulent flow code. SAE Technical Paper. 1993; 931181.
[57]   A. Abis, F. Winkler, C. Schwab, R. Kirchberger, H. Eichlseder. An innovative two-stroke twin-cylinder engine layout for range extending application. SAE Technical Paper. 2013; 2013-32-9133
[58]   A. Vashishtha, B. Rathinam. Study of intake ports design for ultra low cost (ULC) gasoline engine using STAR-CD. SAE Technical Paper. 2012; 2012-01-0407
[59]   G.P. Blair. Design and simulation of two-stroke engines.
[60]   Y. Zhang, H. Zhao, M. Ojapah, A. Cairns. CAI combustion of gasoline and its mixture with ethanol in a 2-stroke poppet valve DI gasoline engine. Fuel. 2013; 109: 661-668.
[61]   Y. Zhang. 2-stroke CAI combustion operation in a GDI engine with poppet valves. SAE Technical Paper. 2012; 2012-01-1118
[62]   M.R. Ravi, A.G. Marathe. Effect of port sizes and timings on the scavenging characteristics of a uniflow scavenged engine. SAE Technical Paper. 1992; 920782.
[63]   A.P. Carlucci, A. Ficarella, G. Trullo. Performance optimization of a two-stroke supercharged diesel engine for aircraft propulsion. Energy Convers Manage. 2016; 122: 279-289.
[64]   H. Persson, J. Sjoholm, E. Kristensson, B. Johansson, M. Richter, M. Alden. Study of fuel stratification on spark assisted compression ignition (SACI) combustion with ethanol using high speed fuel PLIF. SAE Technical Paper. 2008; 2008-01-2401
[65]   B. Williams, P. Ewart, X. Wang, R. Stone, H. Ma, H. Walmsley, et al.. Quantitative planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of multi-component fuel/air mixing in a firing gasoline-direct-injection engine: effects of residual exhaust gas on quantitative PLIF. Combust Flame. 2010; 157(10): 1866-1878.
[66]   R.J. Middleton, J.B. Martz, G.A. Lavoie, A. Babajimopoulos, D.N. Assanis. A computational study and correlation of premixed isooctane air laminar reaction fronts diluted with EGR. Combust Flame. 2012; 159(10): 3146-3157.
[67]   J. Benajes, A. García, V. Domenech, R. Durrett. An investigation of partially premixed compression ignition combustion using gasoline and spark assistance. Appl Therm Eng. 2013; 52(2): 468-477.
[68]   D. Dahl, M. Andersson, A. Berntsson. Denbratt I. Reducing pressure fluctuations at high loads by means of charge stratification in HCCI combustion with negative valve overlap. SAE Technical Paper. 2009; 2009-01-1785
[69]   C.O. Iyer, Z. Han, J. Yi. CFD modeling of a vortex induced stratification combustion (VISC) system. SAE Technical Paper. 2004; 2004-01-0550
[70]   H. Oh, C. Bae. Effects of the injection timing on spray and combustion characteristics in a spray-guided DISI engine under lean-stratified operation. Fuel. 2013; 107: 225-235.
[71]   M. Costa, U. Sorge, L. Allocca. Increasing energy efficiency of a gasoline direct injection engine through optimal synchronization of single or double injection strategies. Energy Convers Manage. 2012; 60: 77-86.
[72]   T. Ikoma, S. Abe, Y. Sonoda, H. Suzuki. Development of V-6 3.5-liter engine adopting new direct injection system. SAE Technical Paper. 2006; 2006-01-1259
[73]   M.C. Drake, D.C. Haworth. Advanced gasoline engine development using optical diagnostics and numerical modeling. Proc Combust Inst. 2007; 31(1): 99-124.
No related articles found!
Copyright © 2015 Higher Education Press & Engineering Sciences Press, All Rights Reserved.