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Engineering    2018, Vol. 4 Issue (4) : 574 -580
Research Green Industrial Processes—Feature Article |
Breakthrough Technologies for the Biorefining of Organic Solid and Liquid Wastes
Paul Chena, Erik Andersona, Min Addya, Renchuan Zhanga, Yanling Chenga, Peng Penga, Yiwei Maa, Liangliang Fana, Yaning Zhanga, Qian Lua, Shiyu Liua, Nan Zhoua, Xiangyuan Denga, Wenguang Zhoua, Muhammad Omara, Richard Griffitha, Faryal Kabira, Hanwu Leia, Yunpu Wangb, Yuhuan Liub, Roger Ruanab()
a Center for Biorefining and Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA
b MOE Biomass Engineering Research Center, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047, China
Abstract  Abstract

Organic solid and liquid wastes contain large amounts of energy, nutrients, and water, and should not be perceived as merely waste. Recycling, composting, and combustion of non-recyclables have been practiced for decades to capture the energy and values from municipal solid wastes. Treatment and disposal have been the primary management strategy for wastewater. As new technologies are emerging, alternative options for the utilization of both solid wastes and wastewater have become available. Considering the complexity of the chemical, physical, and biological properties of these wastes, multiple technologies may be required to maximize the energy and value recovery from the wastes. For this purpose, biorefining tends to be an appropriate approach to completely utilize the energy and value available in wastes. Research has demonstrated that non-recyclable waste materials and bio-solids can be converted into usable heat, electricity, fuel, and chemicals through a variety of processes, and the liquid waste streams have the potential to support crop and algae growth and provide other energy recovery and food production options. In this paper, we propose new biorefining schemes aimed at organic solid and liquid wastes from municipal sources, food and biological processing plants, and animal production facilities. Four new breakthrough technologies—namely, vacuum-assisted thermophilic anaerobic digestion, extended aquaponics, oily wastes to biodiesel via glycerolysis, and microwave-assisted thermochemical conversion—can be incorporated into the biorefining schemes, thereby enabling the complete utilization of those wastes for the production of chemicals, fertilizer, energy (biogas, syngas, biodiesel, and bio-oil), foods, and feeds, and resulting in clean water and a significant reduction in pollutant emissions.

Keywords Municipal solid waste      Municipal wastewater      Pyrolysis      Gasification      Anaerobic digestion      Microalgae      Biodiesel      Biorefining     
Corresponding Authors: Roger Ruan   
Issue Date: 11 September 2018
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Paul Chen
Erik Anderson
Min Addy
Renchuan Zhang
Yanling Cheng
Peng Peng
Yiwei Ma
Liangliang Fan
Yaning Zhang
Qian Lu
Shiyu Liu
Nan Zhou
Xiangyuan Deng
Wenguang Zhou
Muhammad Omar
Richard Griffith
Faryal Kabir
Hanwu Lei
Yunpu Wang
Yuhuan Liu
Roger Ruan
Cite this article:   
Paul Chen,Erik Anderson,Min Addy, et al. Breakthrough Technologies for the Biorefining of Organic Solid and Liquid Wastes[J]. Engineering, 2018, 4(4): 574 -580 .
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