Concrete encased with trapezoidally corrugated web profiled cold-formed steel beams are used worldwide to improve resistance toward fire and corrosion, higher load carrying capacity as well as significant increase in the bending stiffness by encasing concrete on the beam portion. The present work gives a detailed description on the experimental, analytical and numerical investigation on the flexural behavior of concrete encased trapezoidally corrugated web profiled cold-formed steel beams which were simply supported at both ends and subjected to two point symmetric loading. The flexural behavior of such structure has been experimentally tested to failure under pure bending. To find the effect of concrete encasement in the web, 12 experiments were conducted by two different series. Beams having three different web corrugation angles of 0°, 30°, and 45° with two different web depth-thickness ( / ) ratios of 60 and 80 were tested. Experimental results such as load-deflection relationship, ultimate capacity, load-strain relationship, moment-curvature curves, ductility and failure mode indices of the specimens are presented. From the static bending tests the concrete encased trapezoidally corrugated web beam showed improved moment carrying capacity, ductility behavior and the resistance to transverse deflections in comparison to concrete encased with plain web beam. Especially for the beams with concrete encased 30° trapezoidally corrugated web having ( / ) ratio 60 and 80, the loading capacity was improved about 54% and 67.3% and the ductility also increased about 1.6 and 3.6 times, when compared to concrete encased beams with plain web. This research should contribute to the future engineering applications on seismic resistant structures and efficient usage of concrete encased with cold-formed steel beams by exhibiting its super elasto-plastic property. The analytical and numerical results showed good agreement with the experimental results at yield load, which indicates that the proposed analytical equations can be applied in predicting flexural strength accurately for such concrete encased trapezoidally corrugated web profiled cold-formed steel beams.

A long-span concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) arch bridge suffers severe vehicle-induced dynamic responses during its service life. However, few quantitative studies have been reported on the typical diseases suffered by such bridges and their effects on vehicle-induced dynamic response. Thus, a series of field tests and theoretical analyses were conducted to study the effects of typical diseases on the vehicle-induced dynamic response of a typical CFST arch bridge. The results show that a support void results in a height difference between both sides of the expansion joint, thus increasing the effect of vehicle impact on the main girder and suspenders. The impact factor of the displacement response of the main girder exceeds the design value. The variation of the suspender force is significant, and the diseases are found to have a greater effect on a shorter suspender. The theoretical analysis results also show that the support void causes an obvious longitudinal displacement of the main girder that is almost as large as the vertical displacement. The support void can also cause significant changes in the vehicle-induced acceleration response, particularly when the supports and steel box girder continue to collide with each other under the vehicle load.

Jianling HOU ,   Weibing XU   et al.
The current work experimentally explores and then theoretically examines the lateral vibrations of an unbalanced Jeffcott rotor-system working at several unbalance conditions. To this end, three conditions of eccentric masses are considered by using a Bently Nevada RK-4 rotor kit. Measurements of the steady-state as well as the startup data at rigid and flexible rotor states are captured by conducting a setup that mimics the vibration monitoring industrial practices. The linear governing equation of the considered rotor is extracted by adopting the Lagrange method on the basis of rigid rotor assumptions to theoretically predict the lateral vibrations. The dynamic features of the rotor system such as the linearized bearing induced stiffness are exclusively acquired from startup data. It is demonstrated that, with an error of less than 5%, the proposed two-degrees-of-freedom model can predict the flexural vibrations at rigid condition. While at flexible condition, it fails to accurately predict the dynamic response. In contrast to the other works where nonlinear mathematical models with some complexities are proposed to mathematically model the real systems, the present study illustrates the applicability of employing simple models to predict the dynamic response of a real rotor-system with an acceptable accuracy.

Frost heave experiments on saturated sandstone and tuff with an open crack are conducted under uniform and unidirectional freezing conditions. Frost heave of crack in sandstone with high permeability is more significant under uniform freezing condition than that under unidirectional freezing condition. However, frost heave of crack in tuff with low permeability is more significant under unidirectional freezing condition. To illustrate the reasons for this phenomenon, a numerical model on the freezing processes of saturated rock with an open crack considering the latent heat of pore water and water in crack is proposed and confirmed to be reliable. Numerical results show that a frozen shell that blocks the migration of water in crack to rock develops first in the outer part of the rock before the freezing of water in crack under uniform freezing condition. However, the migration path of water in crack to the unfrozen rock under freezing front exists under unidirectional freezing condition. The freezing process and permeability of rock together determine the migration of water in crack and lead to the different frost heave modes of crack for various permeable rocks under different freezing conditions. The frost heave modes of crack in rock with low or high permeability are similar under uniform freezing condition because water migration is blocked by a frozen shell and is irrelevant to rock permeability. For high permeability rock, the frost heave of crack will be weakened due to water migration under unidirectional freezing condition; however, the frost heave of crack would be more significant for low permeability rock because water migration is blocked under unidirectional freezing condition. Therefore, the freezing condition and rock permeability determine the frost heave of rock with crack together, and this should be concerned in cold regions engineering applications.

Zhitao LV ,   Caichu XIA   et al.

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