Spinal disease is an important cause of cervical discomfort, low back pain, radiating pain in the limbs, and neurogenic intermittent claudication, and its incidence is increasing annually. From the etiological viewpoint, these symptoms are directly caused by the compression of the spinal cord, nerve roots, and blood vessels and are most effectively treated with surgery. Spinal surgeries are primarily performed using two different techniques: spinal canal decompression and internal fixation. In the past, tactile sensation was the primary method used by surgeons to understand the state of the tissue within the operating area. However, this method has several disadvantages because of its subjectivity. Therefore, it has become the focus of spinal surgery research so as to strengthen the objectivity of tissue state recognition, improve the accuracy of safe area location, and avoid surgical injury to tissues. Aside from traditional imaging methods, surgical sensing techniques based on force, bioelectrical impedance, and other methods have been gradually developed and tested in the clinical setting. This article reviews the progress of different tissue state recognition methods in spinal surgery and summarizes their advantages and disadvantages.

Hao Qu ,   Yu Zhao   et al.
Tumorigenesis involves metabolic reprogramming and abnormal lipid metabolism, which is manifested by increased endogenous fat mobilization, hypertriglyceridemia, and increased fatty acid synthesis. Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is a key enzyme for the synthesis of fatty acids, and monoacylglycerol esterase (MGLL) is an important metabolic enzyme that converts triglycerides into free fatty acids. Both enzymes play an important role in lipid metabolism and are associated with tumor-related signaling pathways, the most common of which is the PI3K–AKT signaling pathway. They can also regulate the immune microenvironment, participate in epithelial–mesenchymal transition, and then regulate tumor invasion and metastasis. Current literature have shown that these two genes are abnormally expressed in many types of tumors and are highly correlated with tumor migration and invasion. This article introduces the structures and functions of FASN and MGLL, their relationship with abnormal lipid metabolism, and the mechanism of the regulation of tumor invasion and metastasis and reviews the research progress of the relationship of FASN and MGLL with tumor invasion and metastasis.

Jingyue Zhang ,   Yawen Song   et al.
The protection of language function is one of the major challenges of brain surgery. Over the past century, neurosurgeons have attempted to seek the optimal strategy for the preoperative and intraoperative identification of language-related brain regions. Neurosurgeons have investigated the neural mechanism of language, developed neurolinguistics theory, and provided unique evidence to further understand the neural basis of language functions by using intraoperative cortical and subcortical electrical stimulation. With the emergence of modern neuroscience techniques and dramatic advances in language models over the last 25 years, novel language mapping methods have been applied in the neurosurgical practice to help neurosurgeons protect the brain and reduce morbidity. The rapid advancements in brain–computer interface have provided the perfect platform for the combination of neurosurgery and neurolinguistics. In this review, the history of neurolinguistics models, advancements in modern technology, role of neurosurgery in language mapping, and modern language mapping methods (including noninvasive neuroimaging techniques and invasive cortical electroencephalogram) are presented.

Peng Wang ,   Zehao Zhao   et al.
Psoraleae Fructus (PF) is a well-known traditional herbal medicine in China, and it is widely used for osteoporosis, vitiligo, and other diseases in clinical settings. However, liver injury caused by PF and its preparations has been frequently reported in recent years. Our previous studies have demonstrated that PF could cause idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI), but the mechanism underlying its hepatotoxicity remains unclear. This paper reports that bavachin isolated from PF enhances the specific stimuli-induced activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and leads to hepatotoxicity. Bavachin boosts the secretion of IL-1β and caspase-1 caused by ATP or nigericin but not those induced by poly(I:C), monosodium urate crystal, or intracellular lipopolysaccharide. Bavachin does not affect AIM2 or NLRC4 inflammasome activation. Mechanistically, bavachin specifically increases the production of nigericin-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species among the most important upstream events in the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Bavachin increases the levels of aspartate transaminase and alanine aminotransferase in serum and hepatocyte injury accompanied by the secretion of IL-1β via a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide-mediated susceptibility to IDILI. These results suggest that bavachin specifically enhances the ATP- or nigericin-induced activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Bavachin also potentially contributes to PF-induced idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. Moreover, bavachin and PF should be evaded among patients with diseases linked to the ATP- or nigericin-mediated activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, which may be a dangerous factor for liver injury.

Nan Qin ,   Guang Xu   et al.

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