Graphene oxide (GO) has been increasingly utilized in the fields of food, biomedicine, environment and other fields because of its benign biocompatible. We encapsulated two kinds of GO with different sizes on yeast cells with the assistance of polyelectrolytes poly (styrene sulfonic acid) sodium salt (PSS) and polyglutamic acid (PGA) (termed as Y@GO). The result does not show a significant difference between the properties of the two types of Y@GO (namely Y@GO1 and Y@GO2). The encapsulation layers are optimized as Yeast/PGA/PSS/PGA/GO/PGA/PSS based on the morphology, dispersity, colony-forming unit, and zeta potential. The encapsulation of GO increases the roughness of the yeast. It is proved that the Y@GO increases the survival time and enhance the activity of yeast cells. The GO shell improves the resistance of yeast cells against pH and salt stresses and extends the storage time of yeast cells.

Luanying He ,   Yulin Chang   et al.
A mixture of Pingdingshan lean coal and acid-treated Huadian oil shale was co-pyrolyzed in a drop-tube fixed-bed reactor in the temperature range of 300 °C–450 °C. To reveal the formation mechanism of the solid co-pyrolysis product, changes in some physicochemical properties were investigated, using analysis by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, pore analysis, thermogravimetry, and electron spin resonance. X-ray diffraction showed that the lattice plane spacing for the co-pyrolyzed mixture decreased from 0.357 nm to 0.346 nm and the average stacking height increased from 1.509 nm to 1.980 nm in the temperature range of 300 °C–450 °C, suggesting that pyrolysis treatment increased its degree of metamorphism. The amount of oxygen-containing functional groups and pore volume decreased with increasing temperature. Thermogravimetry and electron spin resonance results showed that synergistic effects occurred during the co-pyrolysis process. A formation mechanism for the solid product was proposed. Hydrogen-rich radicals generated from the pyrolysis of the oil shale were trapped by hydrogen-poor macromolecular radicals of the intermediate metaplast produced from coal pyrolysis, thereby increasing the yield of solid product.

Xiangchun Liu ,   Jun Hu   et al.
The rational design of photocatalyst that can effectively reduce CO under visible light ( >400 nm), and simultaneously precise control of the products syngas (CO/H ) ratio is highly desirable for the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. In this work, we synthesized a series of CeO -decorated layered double hydroxides (LDHs, Ce- ) samples for photocatalytic CO reduction. It was found that the selectivity and productivity of CO and H from photoreduction of CO in conjunction with Ru-complex as photosensitizer performed an obvious “volcano-like” trend, with the highest point at Ce-0.15 and the CO/H ratio can be widely tunable from 1/7.7 to 1/1.3. Furthermore, compared with LDH, Ce-0.15 also drove photocatalytic CO to syngas under 600 nm irradiation. It implied that an optimum amount of CeO modifying LDH promoted the photoreduction of CO to syngas. This report gives the way to fully utilize the rare earth elements and provides a promising route to enhance the photo-response ability and charge injection efficiency of LDH-based photocatalysts in the synthesis of syngas with a tunable ratio under visible light irradiation.

Ling Tan ,   Kipkorir Peter   et al.
A two-stage leaching process, namely, high-pressure acid leaching-atmospheric acid leaching, was used to treat laterite ores under mild conditions. The leaching ratio of Ni was low because of adsorption and incomplete leaching. In this work, surfactants were used as additives to boost the leaching ratio of Ni. The effect of surfactant type (cationic, anionic, and nonionic surfactants) on the leaching ratio of Ni was investigated. Leaching results showed that stearyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (STAC) apparently increased the leaching ratios of valuable metals. The variation in the physicochemical properties of the lixiviant and the residue improved the leaching ratio of Ni in the presence of STAC. Kinetics analysis indicated that the leaching process was controlled by chemical reaction.

Peiyu Zhang ,   Hairui Wang   et al.

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