It is well-known that optimizing the wheel system of lunar rovers is essential. However, this is a difficult task due to the complex terrain of the moon and limited resources onboard lunar rovers. In this study, an experimental prototype was set up to analyze the existing mechanical design of a lunar rover and improve its performance. First, a new vane-telescopic walking wheel was proposed for the lunar rover with a positive and negative quadrangle suspension, considering the complex terrain of the moon. Next, the performance was optimized under the limitations of preserving the slope passage and minimizing power consumption. This was achieved via analysis of the wheel force during movement. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method was demonstrated by several simulation experiments. The newly designed wheel can protrude on demand and reduce energy consumption; it can be used as a reference for lunar rover development engineering in China.