The internal structures of metallic products are important in realizing functional applications. Considering the manufacturing of inner structures, laser-based powder bed fusion (L-PBF) is an attractive approach because its layering principle enables the fabrication of parts with customized interior structures. However, the inferior surface quality of L-PBF components hinders its productization progress seriously. In this article, process, basic forms, and applications relevant to L-PBF internal structures are reviewed comprehensively. The causes of poor surface quality and differences in the microstructure and property of the surface features of L-PBF inner structures are presented to provide a perspective of their surface characteristics. Various polishing technologies for L-PBF components with inner structures are presented, whereas their strengths and weaknesses are summarized along with a discussion on the challenges and prospects for improving the interior surface quality of L-PBF parts.