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Article  |  2020-08-06

Analysis of the Quality of Daily DEM Generation with Geosynchronous InSAR

Up-to-date digital elevation model (DEM) products are essential in many fields such as hazards mitigation and urban management. Airborne and low-earth-orbit (LEO) space-borne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has been proven to be a valuable tool for DEM generation. However, given the limitations of cost and satellite repeat cycles, it is difficult to generate or update DEMs very frequently (e.g., on a daily basis) for a very large area (e.g., continental scale or greater). Geosynchronous synthetic aperture radar (GEOSAR) satellites fly in geostationary earth orbits, allowing them to observe the same ground area with a very short revisit time (daily or shorter). This offers great potential for the daily DEM generation that is desirable yet thus far impossible with space-borne sensors. In this work, we systematically analyze the quality of daily GEOSAR DEM. The results indicate that the accuracy of a daily GEOSAR DEM is generally much lower than what can be achieved with typical LEO synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors; therefore, it is important to develop techniques to mitigate the effects of errors in GEOSAR DEM generation.

Zefa Yang ,   Qingjun Zhang   et al.

Review  |  2020-08-03

Progress of Air Pollution Control in China and Its Challenges and Opportunities in the Ecological Civilization Era

China's past economic growth has substantially relied on fossil fuels, causing serious air pollution issues. Decoupling economic growth and pollution has become the focus in developing ecological civilization in China. We have analyzed the three-decade progress of air pollution controls in China, highlighting a strategic transformation from emission control toward air quality management. Emission control of sulfur dioxide (SO2) resolved the deteriorating acid rain issue in China in 2007. Since 2013, control actions on multiple precursors and sectors have targeted the reduction of the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), marking a transition to an air-quality-oriented strategy. Increasing ozone (O3) pollution further requires O3 and PM2.5 integrated control strategies with an emphasis on their complex photochemical interactions. Fundamental improvement of air quality in China, as a key indicator for the success of ecological civilization construction, demands the deep de-carbonization of China's energy system as well as more synergistic pathways to address air pollution and global climate change simultaneously.

Xi Lu ,   Shaojun Zhang   et al.

Article  |  2020-08-11

Strategic Path and Countermeasures for Developing Internet Plus Modern Agriculture

 Internet Plus Modern Agriculture is the practice of Internet concepts, technologies, and methods in the field of agriculture. It is a new format and mode that integrates Internet with the modern agricultural industry against the background of the new generation of information technology revolution. Based on the analysis of the demand for modern agricultural development, this study puts forward the necessity of developing Internet Plus Modern Agriculture in China. It presents the connotation of Internet Plus Modern Agriculture and analyzes its new characteristics from several aspects, including digitalization of information perception, intelligence of agricultural machinery, precision in agricultural production, online management of post-production links, and personalization of agricultural technology services. It also analyzes the challenges from three levels: technology, industry, and application, and proposes the development ideas and strategic objectives for the next fifteen years. We believe that the current development focus of Internet Plus Modern Agriculture mainly includes three aspects: to make breakthroughs in the application theory, methods, and key technologies; to form an industrial cluster for Internet Plus Modern Agriculture; and to demonstrate the integrated application of Internet Plus into fields such as agricultural production, supply chain, and productive services. To this end, China should accelerate the Internet connectivity and information sharing in the rural areas, constructing a technical standards system for Internet Plus Modern Agriculture, and develop disciplines as well as cultivate professionals related to Internet Plus Modern Agriculture, thus to promote the transformation and upgrades of the modern agricultural industry in China.

Li Jin ,   Ma Chen   et al.

Article  |  2020-08-07

Successful management of seven cases of critical COVID-19 with early noninvasive–invasive sequential ventilation algorithm and bundle pharmacotherapy

We report the clinical and laboratory findings and successful management of seven patients with critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) requiring mechanical ventilation (MV). The patients were diagnosed based on epidemiological history, clinical manifestations, and nucleic acid testing. Upon diagnosis with COVID-19 of critical severity, the patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, where they received early noninvasive–invasive sequential ventilation, early prone positioning, and bundle pharmacotherapy regimen, which consists of antiviral, anti-inflammation, immune-enhancing, and complication-prophylaxis medicines. The patients presented fever ( = 7, 100%), dry cough ( = 3, 42.9%), weakness ( = 2, 28.6%), chest tightness ( = 1, 14.3%), and/or muscle pain ( = 1, 14.3%). All patients had normal or lower than normal white blood cell count/lymphocyte count, and chest computed tomography scans showed bilateral patchy shadows or ground glass opacity in the lungs. Nucleic acid testing confirmed COVID-19 in all seven patients. The median MV duration and intensive care unit stay were 9.9 days (interquartile range, 6.5–14.6 days; range, 5–17 days) and 12.9 days (interquartile range, 9.7–17.6 days; range, 7–19 days), respectively. All seven patients were extubated, weaned off MV, transferred to the common ward, and discharged as of the writing of this report. Thus, we concluded that good outcomes for patients with critical COVID-19 can be achieved with early noninvasive–invasive sequential ventilation and bundle pharmacotherapy.

Mian Peng ,   Xueyan Liu   et al.

Article  |  2020-08-07

Taizhou’s COVID-19 prevention and control experience with telemedicine features

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly around the world. As of May 30, 2020, a total of 84 568 confirmed COVID-19 cases have been recorded in China, with a mortality rate of approximately 5.5%. Taizhou is a prefecture-level city in Zhejiang Province. A total of 146 cases were diagnosed in this epidemic, with a fatality rate of 0%. This condition is due to the establishment of an “Internet+” diagnosis and treatment model based on online medical application (APP), telemedicine, WeChat service, and consultation hotline in Taizhou. Taizhou led in opening the “COVID-19 Prevention and Treatment Special Line” in China, which is conducive to pre-hospital screening, suppressing social panic, and clinical support. Hospitals also carried out related online lectures and popularization of science. We summarize Taizhou’s COVID-19 prevention and control experience with telemedicine features, with a view to providing reference for the control of the epidemic at home and abroad.

Cenyi Shao ,   Shijian Li   et al.

Article  |  2020-08-07

Clinical study using mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of patients with severe COVID-19

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 was identified in December 2019. The symptoms include fever, cough, dyspnea, early symptom of sputum, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy is the immediate treatment used for patients with severe cases of COVID-19. Herein, we describe two confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Wuhan to explore the role of MSC in the treatment of COVID-19. MSC transplantation increases the immune indicators (including CD4 and lymphocytes) and decreases the inflammation indicators (interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein). High-flow nasal cannula can be used as an initial support strategy for patients with ARDS. With MSC transplantation, the fraction of inspired O (FiO ) of the two patients gradually decreased while the oxygen saturation (SaO ) and partial pressure of oxygen (PO ) improved. Additionally, the patients’ chest computed tomography showed that bilateral lung exudate lesions were adsorbed after MSC infusion. Results indicated that MSC transplantation provides clinical data on the treatment of COVID-19 and may serve as an alternative method for treating COVID-19, particularly in patients with ARDS.

Lingling Tang ,   Yingan Jiang   et al.

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